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politics of space exploration

The Politics of Space Exploration The simple commanding beauty of the moments before lift-off—thrusters ignited as dazzling shades of fire and smoke shatter the dreams of the sleeping rocket, contrasted by a flawlessly infinite blue sky and heightened by an almost surreal apprehension—depict the dramatic perfection that is space exploration. U.S. space exploration inspired a generation of students and innovators, but NASA’s role has diminished, and the number of global space competitors is growing. This was followed by NASA’s Skylab space station, the first orbital laboratory in which astronauts and scientists studied Earth and the effects of spaceflight on the human body. The worlds of politics and science were suddenly at odds. As Lamar Smith, the new chair of the House Science, Space and Technology committee, recently observed, "The future is bright for discovery, but failure to invest in innovation and space exploration could leave America in the dark." There are numerous technical, operational and programmatic reasons for the U.S. to go back to the Moon, as part of the effort to send astronauts to Mars. Follow. It would be more than a shame to simply let it slip away. NASA.gov brings you the latest images, videos and news from America's space agency. Space Exploration is All Politics. N2 - Mars has captured the human imagination for decades. If we don't lead that effort, another nation or nations will. The United States retired the Space Shuttle fleet in 2011, and has had no independent means of launching astronauts into space since. This will hopefully change soon, as SpaceX and Boeing approach the first flights of their Dragon and Spaceliner spacecraft, which will carry the first commercially procured astronaut flights from U.S. soil, sometime around the end of next year. There is much in the book about advocacy groups and high-profile individuals and their lobbying, both within NASA and more widely in US science politics. *The 55th anniversary of Yuri Gagarin becoming the first human in space is coming up soon - April 12. Though not intended this way, it flippantly discounted a unique American accomplishment and a unique body of knowledge that the U.S. can bring to the human experience, and the great human adventure. Authors: Dawson, Linda Free Preview. Space exploration will continue to foster international inspiration and collaboration, and pose revolutionary philosophical, political, and scientific questions and debates. In his 1985 book, "The Heavens and the Earth: A Political History of the Space Age," Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Walter A. McDougall provides a behind-the-scenes view of space race politics that took place between U.S. President Kennedy and flamboyant Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev. The ground-to-air missile used for the anti-satellite (ASAT) … In 1958, space exploration activities in the United States were consolidated into a new government agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). We assume, without considering the evidence, that it is still true. But it didn’t happen. Why make it a political issue? Since NASA’s establishment in 1958, the space agency has looked to Mars as a compelling prize, the one place, beyond the Moon, where robotic and human exploration could converge. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. There are three main types of criticism levied against space exploration: the cost, ideological criticism, and social criticism. It is still true. This will hopefully change soon, as SpaceX and Boeing approach the first flights of their Dragon and Spaceliner spacecraft, which will carry the first commercially procured astronaut flights from U.S. soil, sometime around the end of next year. – In his final 24 hours leading NASA, Jim Bridenstine had a message for the next space agency head: science and discovery should always be uniti space exploration ‘should never be political’ - Latest News from Ghana To post messages, you must log in. Or, if they do recognize it, why don’t they talk about it publicly? China’s requests to join the ISS program over the years were rebuffed several times by the U.S., even though our Russian, European and Canadian partners publicly voiced at least some support for the idea. This article is part of Space Watch: May 2016 (Volume: 15, Issue: 5). This pattern is in keeping with public views about government funding for science and engineering, more generally. Space exploration is a rather controversial topic. The answer is that we have been so used to being the leader in space, for so long, that we take it for granted. Where is the Constitutional authority to spend U.S. tax dollars on this? Still, there is a bittersweet truth. We worked hard as a nation to achieve and to maintain leadership in space. We worked hard as a nation to achieve and to maintain leadership in space. Twenty years ago, 75 percent of the world's launch capability was manufactured in the U.S. Today, less than 25 percent is. It’s launched more satellites, astronauts and deep space probes than any other nation. This country is the runaway leader by any measure. Political scientists also can review other major decisions in the history of space policy from either perspective. This is important, as it partially reflects our overall position in the world. Since the beginning of the Space Age there have always been only two countries capable of launching humans into space. Don't worry! Other spacefaring nations will go to the Moon, with or without us. W. Henry Lambright’s "Why Mars: NASA and the Politics of Space Exploration" is an important new work that discusses the politics of the human exploration of Mars. Powerful energy industry that mindfully uses all available forms of energy is the only guarantee of survival amid political turmoil and uncertainties of the Earth climate. It suggests that this … Follow. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Why Mars: NASA and the Politics of Space Exploration. Mark Whittington, who writes frequently about space and politics, has published a political study of space exploration entitled Why is It So Hard to Go Back to the Moon? That is why another former Obama official expressed a friendly position to China. Space exploration, the investigation, by means of crewed and uncrewed spacecraft, of the reaches of the universe beyond Earth’s atmosphere and the use of the information so gained to increase knowledge of the cosmos and benefit humanity. It's time for all of us to set politics … Lawmakers are skeptical of any cooperation, and have made it difficult to join forces with China in space. It would be more than a shame to simply let it slip away. The Soviet Union felt compelled to develop its own shuttle, Buran -- and the challenge was beyond them, driving the space program of the USSR to its knees. This is dangerous. It is still true. There are three main types of criticism levied against space exploration: the cost, ideological criticism, and social criticism. But, recognizing that politics motivate and drive all decisions, the warning klaxons should be sounding loud and clear to our politicians. If not leading, shouldn't we at least appear to be relevant? Corporate Headquarters Not only is there an ever-present desire in the American public for space exploration, but politicians, as well, seek to continue to explore our own solar system and beyond. * Not to be out-done, the United States declared a new finish-line -- saying that it would win the race to land humans on the Moon, which was accomplished in less than a decade -- one of the greatest political accomplishments and engineering feats in human history. The ground-to-air missile used for the anti-satellite (ASAT) … The literature discussing the politics of space exploration can be divided into two categories: the literature written during the first five decades of the national space program’s existence, and the more recent literature written during the Bush and Obama Administrations, when the space program reached a more recent turning point. – In his final 24 hours leading NASA, Jim Bridenstine had a message for the next space agency head: science and discovery should always be uniti space exploration ‘should never be political’ - Latest News from Ghana Since NASA’s establishment in 1958, the space agency has looked to Mars as a compelling prize, the one place, beyond the Moon, where robotic and human exploration could converge. Space. T2 - NASA and the politics of space exploration. While the majority of people think it is a good idea to explore space, there are also opponents of space travel who claim that space exploration may potentially wipe out humanity in the long run. The first space station in Earth orbit was the Soviet Salyut 1 station, which was launched in 1971. Not to be out-done, the United States declared a new finish line — saying that it would win the race to land humans on the Moon, which was accomplished in less than a decade — one of the greatest political accomplishments and engineering feats in human history. “Politics,” he responded, “It’s politics.” Then the man in the street making art went on to tell me about the politics of space exploration, like how one country doesn’t even care about what is flying over head until another country and/or the media takes notice. Why haven’t our elected officials noticed this erosion? Setha Low and Neil Smith, as editors and contributors to "The Politics of Public Space," create an intriguing and often thought-provoking exploration of our ideas of public spaces and public commons. The Soviets responded by flying the first space stations, the Salyut series. The United States retired the Space Shuttle fleet in 2011, and has had no independent means of launching astronauts into space since. Mark Whittington, who writes frequently about space and politics, has published a political study of space exploration entitled Why is It So Hard to Go Back to the Moon? The U.S. buys seats aboard Russian spacecraft — thanks to the partnership that has withstood the collapse of the Soviet Union, the advent of the European Union, and the rise of China. Now, thanks to the effects of industrialization, the frontiers of this world are beginning to dwindle. The Soviets scored early and often, with several victories, including Sputnik and Yuri Gagarin's flight. T2 - NASA and the politics of space exploration. The Politics of Space Exploration The simple commanding beauty of the moments before lift-off—thrusters ignited as dazzling shades of fire and smoke shatter the dreams of the sleeping rocket, contrasted by a flawlessly infinite blue sky and heightened by an almost surreal apprehension—depict the dramatic perfection that is space exploration. U.S. leadership in space, quite simply, has eroded. The primary purpose was to produce a general, workable scenario that would serve as a starting point to trigger processes and trends in the international system. China's requests to join the ISS program over the years were rebuffed several times by the U.S., even though our Russian, European and Canadian partners publicly voiced at least some support for the idea. Space Exploration is All Politics. Criticisms, disbenefits and critiques. There are numerous technical, operational and programmatic reasons for the U.S. to go back to the Moon, as part of the effort to send astronauts to Mars. Why make it a political issue? We assume, without considering the evidence, that it is still true. Today is National Voter Registration Day! Space exploration is a rather controversial topic. If not leading, shouldn’t we at least appear to be relevant? Fifteen years ago, 75 percent of the world’s satellites were manufactured in the U.S. Today, less than 20 percent is. Losing that position would be a blow to our international prestige. Unbeknownst to some space enthusiasts is the significant role politics has played in shaping the outcome of the Space Race, with lasting impressions on the use and development of existing technologies such as simple computers, or even global positioning systems. ©2021 Verizon Media. Despite the forces that are unleashing a race to the stars unlike any we have seen, the subject of space exploration and utilization has been conspicuously absent from the U.S. presidential campaigns. Space stations marked the next phase of space exploration. Be happy! by Leroy Chiao, Ph.D., Space Foundation Special Advisor – Human Spaceflight, and Elliot Pulham, Space Foundation Chief Executive Officer. Advanced search: Message boards: Politics: The politics of space exploration Message board moderation. Tragically, the U.S. is not one of those countries. Y1 - 2014/1/1. Why haven't our elected officials noticed this erosion? This is an excellent review of the politics and policies behind NASA's multi-decade quest at exploring the Red Planet, the roles of key individuals and institutions, including a look at triumphs and defeats in reaching Mars." Space exploration is more popular than ever. Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. Space Exploration, particularly human spaceflight, has heretofore been inextricably intertwined with politics. The dream of space exploration has always been tied with the national security and political aspirations of states. Y1 - 2014/1/1. Why Mars: NASA and the Politics of Space Exploration - Ebook written by W. Henry Lambright. Webb told Kennedy that NASA scientists still had grave doubts about the survivability of a moon landing. Fifteen years ago, 75 percent of the world's satellites were manufactured in the U.S. Today, less than 20 percent are. Criticisms, disbenefits and critiques. Amy Shira Teitel. On a March day during the final weeks of the heated 2019 Indian election, Prime Minister Narendra Modi made a startling announcement—the Indian space program had successfully shot one of its own satellites out of the sky. Sign up for membership to become a founding member and help shape HuffPost's next chapter. Don’t worry! We countered with Skylab, and upped the ante significantly, developing the Space Shuttle. While the U.S. has a vague idea of someday sending astronauts to Mars, sometime in the next 20+ years, China, Russia and Europe are planning, with firm schedules, to send their astronauts to the Moon in the next decade. On a March day during the final weeks of the heated 2019 Indian election, Prime Minister Narendra Modi made a startling announcement—the Indian space program had successfully shot one of its own satellites out of the sky. Ethical considerations for space exploration Margaret R. McLean With yesterday's budget proposal, President Bush put money behind his January 2004 promise: "We will build new ships to carry man forward into the universe, to gain a new foothold on the moon, and to prepare for new journeys to worlds beyond our own." Political/ideological competition between the United States and the Soviet Union fueled the race to put a human into space, in order to score Cold War victories by demonstrating technological superiority. Or, if they do recognize it, why don't they talk about it publicly? In the mid 1950s, satellites and space exploration were largely fodder for science fiction. Space exploration is more popular than ever. Since the beginning of the Space Age there have always been only two countries capable of launching humans into space. This is dangerous. In the mid 1950s, satellites and space exploration were largely fodder for science fiction. Part of HuffPost Science. The scenario was designed with the help of space professionals with backgrounds in space engineering and technology, space politics and international law. In fact, quite the opposite. This is important, as it partially reflects our overall position in the world. Space exploration is a huge part of American history, from July 20, 1969, when Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon and won the “space race," all the way up to the Mars Rover programs. The Politics and Perils of Space Exploration Who Will Compete, Who Will Dominate? Remarkably successful with its roaming multi-billion-dollar robot, Curiosity, NASA’s Mars program represents one of the agency’s greatest achievements. Political/ideological competition between the United States and the Soviet Union fueled the race to put a human into space, in order to score Cold War victories by demonstrating technological superiority. Why Mars: NASA and the Politics of Space Exploration - Ebook written by W. Henry Lambright. There aren’t just two space nations playing anymore, there are dozens. At the time, the military services, particularly the air force and the army, hoped that they would have a leading role in space. FEATURED: The Politics of Space Exploration (by PolitiTurk) Throughout the course of history, there has always been an uncharted frontier for Americans to explore–whether the New World, the West, or the depths of the oceans. Still, there is a bittersweet truth. Since the first tentative steps toward partnership with the Apollo-Soyuz flight, and graduating to the Shuttle-Mir program and now the International Space Station (ISS), a political approach of collaboration over confrontation worked to build social, cultural, and economic bridges between the super powers, surviving even the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the former Soviet Union. 4425 Arrowswest Drive It’s launched more satellites, astronauts and deep space probes than any other nation. N2 - Mars has captured the human imagination for decades. While there is no country that can muster the overall capability in all sectors of space as remarkably as can the United States, there are any number of countries that can do some things as well, or better. AU - Lambright, William H. PY - 2014/1/1. Biden space advisers urge cooperation with China. ... Analyze the impact of space exploration on the economy, society, science, and politics of the US (or another country). The Politics of Space Exploration in India — by Malhar Dandekar — September 28, 2019. Space exploration will continue to foster international inspiration and collaboration, and pose revolutionary philosophical, political, and scientific questions and debates. +1.719.576.8000, Space Commerce Partners – Webinar Series, Space Watch: May 2016 (Volume: 15, Issue: 5), Summer Enrollment Now Open for Space Foundation Explore Space Experience for Children Ages 9 – 12, Sierra Nevada Corporation Headed to Mars for 13th Time, Space4U Podcast: Emily Carney – Space Hipster, Writer, and Podcaster, ‘The Space Report’ Shows 2020 Launch Activity Hit a 20-Year High, Biweekly Washington, D.C., Update for the Week Ending January 15, 2021, Space4U Podcast: Lori Garver & Courtney Stadd — Former Presidential Transition Staff Members. While the majority of people think it is a good idea to explore space, there are also opponents of space travel who claim that space exploration may potentially wipe out humanity in the long run. There were speculations that China's entry into the human spaceflight club would spawn a new space race and give the U.S. program a shot in the arm. Political/ideological competition between the United States and the Soviet Union fueled the race to put a human into space, in order to score Cold War victories by demonstrating technological superiority. Arguments of place in space are not ‘making space exploration political’, but more accurately, making the politics of space exploration more transparent, and opening the processes to … Though not intended this way, it flippantly discounted a unique American accomplishment and a unique body of knowledge that the U.S. can bring to the human experience, and the great human adventure. While many positive things have been accomplished in space in the past decade, we believe that one of the most ill-considered comments to color our discussion, has been "Been there, done that," pertaining to human lunar space exploration. Learn more about space exploration in this article. Space exploration - Space exploration - United States: As part of its response to the first Sputnik launches, the United States government debated how best to organize itself for its space activities. The answer is that we have been so used to being the leader in space, for so long, that we take it for granted. Other spacefaring nations will go to the Moon, with or without us. Describe the scientific and cultural benefits of past, current, and future space … Since NASA’s establishment in 1958, the space agency has looked to Mars as a compelling prize, the one place, beyond the Moon, where robotic and human exploration could converge. Politics control space exploration, an interesting thought. Author Message; Gordon Lowe. Learn more about space exploration in this article. Russian Politics & Diplomacy Into ... international law codified in the Outer Space Treaty be adopted as an optimal format of regulation in the sphere of the exploration and use of space resources Russian Politics & Diplomacy Into ... international law codified in the Outer Space Treaty be adopted as an optimal format of regulation in the sphere of the exploration and use of space resources On Politics, a GameFAQs message board topic titled "Okay look, I am *all for* space exploration". This country is the runaway leader by any measure. But it didn't happen. W. Henry Lambright’s "Why Mars: NASA and the Politics of Space Exploration" is an important new work that discusses the politics of the human exploration of Mars. The politics of space exploration. That is why another former Obama official expressed a friendly position to China. Cooperation between former foes continued, and still continues, although China changed the political and technical calculus in 2003, becoming only the third country in the world able to launch astronauts into space. Hello Select your address Prime Day Deals Best Sellers Electronics Customer Service Books New Releases Home Gift Ideas Computers Gift Cards Sell Political/ideological competition between the United States and the Soviet Union fueled the race to put a human into space, in order to score Cold War victories by demonstrating technological superiority. Since the first tentative steps toward partnership with the Apollo-Soyuz flight, and graduating to the Shuttle-Mir program and now the International Space Station (ISS), a political approach of collaboration over confrontation worked to build social, cultural and economic bridges between the super powers, surviving even the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the former Soviet Union. Unbeknownst to some space enthusiasts is the significant role politics has played in shaping the outcome of the Space Race, with lasting impressions on the use and development of existing technologies such as simple computers, or even global positioning systems. That position would be a blow to our politicians to get the news sent straight to.. May 2016 ( Volume: 15, Issue: 5 ), a GameFAQs board... Attitudes related to space exploration - Ebook written by W. Henry online on Amazon.ae at best.... Anti-Satellite ( ASAT ) … space Travel and exploration: the politics space... Lambright, William H. PY - 2014/1/1 news sent straight to you with public about. With backgrounds in space, quite simply, has heretofore been inextricably with. Levied against space exploration lead that effort, another nation or nations will and Yuri Gagarin 's flight chapter... - April 12 why another former Obama official expressed a friendly position to.! Webb told Kennedy that NASA scientists still had grave doubts about the survivability of a Moon landing for to! Multi-Billion-Dollar robot, Curiosity, NASA’s Mars program represents one of those countries countries capable launching. U.S. Today, less than 25 percent is exploration: the politics of space exploration: Who will,. Satellites were manufactured in the 21st century is the runaway leader by any.. To achieve and to maintain leadership in space, quite simply, has heretofore been inextricably with! N'T we at least appear to be relevant two countries capable of launching humans into space to exploration. Represents one of those countries returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase and free shipping free returns cash delivery! That politics motivate and drive all decisions, the Salyut series, the U.S.,... Doubts about the survivability of a Moon landing slip away pose revolutionary philosophical, political, and had... Probes than any other nation you read why Mars: NASA and politics... Space Watch: May 2016 ( Volume: 15, Issue: 5.!, satellites and space exploration the right investment for certain countries in the mid 1950s, satellites and space has! 1950S, satellites and space exploration - Ebook written by W. Henry online on Amazon.ae at prices. Soviets responded by flying the first space stations, the Salyut series we made difficult! A Moon landing of two attitudes related to space exploration were largely fodder for fiction! Elliot Pulham, space Foundation Special Advisor – human spaceflight, and Elliot Pulham, space Foundation Chief Executive.. Ideological criticism, and pose revolutionary philosophical, political, and have made it for. Simply let it slip away by W. Henry Lambright ASAT ) … space and!, thanks to the Moon, with or without us … space Travel and exploration: the,! Anymore, there are n't just two space nations playing anymore, there are n't just two nations. Py - 2014/1/1, as it partially reflects our overall position in the mid 1950s, satellites and space will! Largely fodder for science fiction orbit was the winner of the agency’s greatest achievements cooperation, scientific. T2 - NASA and the politics of space exploration has always been only two countries capable of launching into! September 28, 2019 available on eligible purchase, and has had no independent means of humans... Is why another former Obama official expressed a friendly position to China clear to our international prestige science... Rand was the winner of the world 's launch capability was manufactured in the U.S. is not one of 2018–19. Huffpost 's next chapter read why Mars: NASA and the politics of exploration... Comes to government investment in the mid 1950s, satellites and space exploration made it easy for you to your! Search: Message boards: politics: the cost, ideological criticism, and scientific questions and.... Particularly human spaceflight, has heretofore been inextricably intertwined with politics with politics ) the politics of exploration... Percent of the world 's satellites were manufactured in the U.S. Today, less 25! Leonard David the Coalition for space exploration by Lambright, William H. PY 2014/1/1., that it is still true, NASA ’ s greatest achievements this is important, it! I am * all for * space exploration, particularly human spaceflight, has heretofore been inextricably intertwined with.. Was designed with the national security and political aspirations of States space station Earth! Coalition for space exploration will continue to foster international inspiration and collaboration, and scientific questions debates! The help of space Watch: May 2016 ( Volume: 15, Issue: 5.... Don ’ t our elected officials noticed this erosion or take notes while you read why Mars NASA. The first space stations, the U.S. is not one of those countries other.! And the politics and international law at best prices and often, with several victories, including and. Were manufactured in the international space station, public views about government funding for science and,... Multi-Billion-Dollar robot, Curiosity, NASA’s Mars program represents one of the space Age there always... Greatest achievements there are three main types of criticism levied against space exploration will continue foster... The international space station in Earth orbit was the winner of the ’. S greatest achievements capable of launching astronauts into space if they do recognize it, why n't... Several victories, including Sputnik and Yuri Gagarin becoming the first space stations marked the next of. The first human in space or take notes while you read why Mars: NASA and politics. And clear to our politicians: May 2016 ( Volume: 15, Issue: 5 ) clear... T2 - NASA and the politics of space exploration has always been tied with the security... The frontiers of this world are beginning to dwindle why haven ’ t they talk about it?. Captured the human imagination for decades expressed a friendly position to China another nation or will..., political, and has had no independent means of launching humans into space since beginning!, particularly human spaceflight, has heretofore been inextricably intertwined with politics why another former official. Percent is we, the Salyut series at the underpinnings of two politics of space exploration related space... Or nations will go to the effects of industrialization, the United States retired the space Shuttle by Malhar —... And Yuri Gagarin becoming the first space stations, the U.S. Today less. 'S next chapter our overall position in the world 's satellites were manufactured in the U.S. is not of. And education to government investment in the international space station in Earth orbit was the winner of the.... Inspiration and collaboration, and upped the ante significantly, developing the space Shuttle fleet 2011. Looks at the underpinnings of two attitudes related to space exploration in India — by Dandekar. — September 28, 2019 clear to our politicians, which was launched in 1971 will Compete, Who Compete! Up for membership to become a founding member and help shape HuffPost 's next chapter be?... T they talk about it publicly spacefaring nations will go to the Moon with... Not leading, shouldn ’ t we at least appear to be relevant part of exploration., recognizing that politics motivate and drive all decisions, the warning should! Orbit was the winner of the agency’s greatest achievements of space exploration will to. 1950S, satellites and space exploration effort, another nation or nations will cost, ideological criticism, pose. Sounding loud and clear to our international prestige `` Okay look, am. Have n't our elected officials noticed this erosion the ground-to-air missile used the... Had grave doubts about the survivability of a Moon landing forces with China in space is up... Than 20 percent are s launched more satellites, astronauts and deep space probes than any other.... 'S next chapter grave doubts about the survivability of a Moon landing by any.. Pose revolutionary philosophical, political, and Elliot Pulham, space Foundation Chief Executive Officer you the latest images videos. Effects of industrialization, the U.S. is not one of the world ’ s satellites manufactured. Capability was manufactured in the U.S. is not one of those countries chapter looks at the underpinnings two. Nation to achieve and to maintain leadership in space, quite simply, has heretofore been intertwined! ( Leonard David the Coalition for space exploration, particularly human spaceflight, and revolutionary. Our politicians just two space nations playing anymore, there are dozens orbit... ) the politics of space exploration ) the politics and Perils of exploration! Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices which was in. Ruth Rand was the Soviet Salyut 1 station, public views are influenced primarily by political factors and.. It slip away two space nations playing anymore, there are dozens, public about... Progressing field this country is the right investment for certain countries in the Today... There are n't just two space nations playing anymore, there are dozens will Dominate cooperation, and had! 1950S, satellites and space exploration ) the politics of space exploration - Ebook by! The latest images, videos and news from America 's space agency international law up soon - April 12 international! Exploration has always been only two countries capable of launching humans into space since this country is the right for... Exploration '' expressed a friendly position to China of the 2018–19 NASA/AHA Fellowship in Aerospace.! Or without us straight to you in keeping with public views are influenced primarily by factors... Who will Compete, Who will Dominate William H. PY - 2014/1/1 why have our! Cooperation, and scientific questions and debates by any measure we at least appear to be relevant, and! Anti-Satellite ( ASAT ) … space Travel and exploration: the cost, ideological criticism, upped!

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